Laravel Tutorial 2

Database configuration:

  • Specify the database being used in config/database.php
  • If you’re using sqlite, create an “database.sqlite” file in either databses or storage. We do not need to edit the “.env” file
    • Setting the path for database.sqlite
      • folder names are referenced with “_path” Eg: storage folder as “storage_path()”, database folder as “database_path()”
      • If the file is in the storage folder then you can write “storage_path(‘database.sqlite’)”, else if it is in the database folder then you can write “database_path(‘database.sqlite’)”
  • If you’re using mysql change the authentication details and edit the “.env” file

Migrations:

First we will need to set up database schema.

  • Migrations are version control for databases
  • Usually you create tables using GUI but these migrations help you create tables in the app. It will help the team to work with tables without using GUI but with code
  • Creating a migration doesn’t create the table. It will need to be migrated to get the tables created
  • You want to make a migration: Check these commands
    • php artisan make:migration nameofmigration
    • php artisan migrate — This will create the tables  in the database
  • You can roll back using Down functions in the migration class

Reference:

Seeding:

  • Laravel includes a simple method of seeding your database with test data using seed classes. All seed classes are stored in database/seeds. Seed classes may have any name you wish, but probably should follow some sensible convention, such as UsersTableSeeder, etc.
  • Adding some data to the tables for viewing something on the browser
  • Use “php artisan make:seeder UsersTableSeeder”
  • Add insert statements in the run method
  • DB::table(‘words’)->insert([ ‘word’=>’Modest’, ‘meaning’=>’Refusing to take any credit’, ‘language’=>’English’ ]);

  • Running Seeders:
    • php artisan db:seed
    • php artisan db:seed –class=UsersTableSeeder (for sepcific seeders)

Model:

  • To work with our database we need models
  • php artisan make:model User
  • model gets created in /app folder – ‘user.php’

Controllers:

  • To start hitting the browsers we need to set up some Controllers and Routes to point to them.
  • php artisan make:controller UsersController
  • controller gets created in /app/Http/Controllers folder

Routes: 

https://laravel.com/docs/5.4/routing

  • Routes location:
    • Laravel 5.2.45
      • app/http/routes.php is the main routes file
    • Laravel 5.4.26
      • /routes/web.php is the main routes file
    • User php artisan –version” to know version of Laravel
  • You can return a view by writing
    • Route::get(‘/’, function () { return view(‘welcome’); });
  • You can return resources from controller
    • Route:resource(‘users’,’UsersController’);
  • command prompt – php artisan route:list to view all the routes
  • You can do nested resources (joining tables)
  • Calling a function in a controller:
    • Route::get(‘about’,’UsersController@index’);
    • you should have index function in the UsersController.php page
      • public function index(){ return ‘Welcome to My Dictionary’; }
      • this will return the welcome message string when you navigate to /app/about
    • Returning a view:
      • Do not worry about the extension of the view or path of the view while referencing a view
      • can name the view like ‘folder.view’
    • Routing a model
      • Route::model(‘words’,’Word’);
  • app/users – which got both GET & POST works everywhere except Firefox

Route Model binding:

  • https://laracasts.com/series/laravel-5-fundamentals/episodes/18
  • route() helper function with a named route
  • routes.php ‘explicit binding’ –
    • Route::bind(‘words’, function($value) {
      return App\Word::where(‘userid’,$value)->first();
      });
    • which lets you use App/users/1 and shows all the details on the page

Reference:

Views:

  • To have consistent layouts across follow –  https://laravel.com/docs/5.0/templates#blade-templating
  • Reading & showing data is done – you don’t need to write any database queries to get the data from the database – it is done by Laravel

Reference:

Create/Edit/Delete:

Create:

  • Creating a “Create User” link in the index.blade.php file
  • {{ HTML::linkRoute(‘create’, ‘Add Word’) }}
    • In Laravel 5.0 HTML & Form helpers not added by default anymore
    • add “laravelcollective/html” in the required array of the composer file
    • Add the following in config/app.php file
      • add providers – “Collective\Html\HtmlServiceProvider::class”
      • add alliases – ‘Form’ => Collective\Html\FormFacade::class‘Html’ => Collective\Html\HtmlFacade::class,
    • https://laravelcollective.com/docs/5.2/html

Create & Edit View:

  • create.blade.php & edit.blade.php needs to be created
  • <!-- /resources/views/projects/create.blade.php -->
    @extends('app')
     
    @section('content')
        <h2>Create Project</h2>
     
        {!! Form::model(new App\Project, ['route' => ['projects.store']]) !!}
            @include('projects/partials/_form', ['submit_text' => 'Create Project'])
        {!! Form::close() !!}
    @endsection
     
    <!-- /resources/views/projects/edit.blade.php -->
    @extends('app')
     
    @section('content')
        <h2>Edit Project</h2>
     
        {!! Form::model($project, ['method' => 'PATCH', 'route' => ['projects.update', $project->slug]]) !!}
            @include('projects/partials/_form', ['submit_text' => 'Edit Project'])
        {!! Form::close() !!}
    @endsection
  • Form View: /_form.blade.php
    • {!! Form::label(‘name’, ‘Name:’) !!} {!! Form::text(‘name’) !!}

      {!! Form::label(‘slug’, ‘Slug:’) !!} {!! Form::text(‘slug’) !!}

      {!! Form::label(‘completed’, ‘Completed:’) !!} {!! Form::checkbox(‘completed’) !!}

      {!! Form::label(‘description’, ‘Description:’) !!} {!! Form::textarea(‘description’) !!}

      {!! Form::submit($submit_text) !!}

  • Fixing mass assignment exception by addin – protected $guarded = []; to model “user.php” in app folder
  • You can start adding users
  • Note – If the primary key is not ‘id’ for a table it won’t update. You’ll have to change the the primary key in your model (Eloquent ORM (Object Reference Model)). Eg -> protected $primarykey=’userid’;
  • CRUD operations done
  • Flash Messages:
    • These are the messages that can be shown after a successful request

Things to do:

  • How to remove /public/app etc and make it /app without giving access to .env file?
  • How to add bootstrap & styling?
  • How to add JS if required?
  • How to move this localhost built app to a new server?

Whole Project Reference:

Github Repo:

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Laravel Tutorial

Using Laravel:
1) Created database for Laravel, you can see the options in for various database servers on config.php
2) Use any database server and set the parameters on config/database.php and also on the ‘env’ file on the root directory
3) for installing migration “php artisan migrate:install”
4) migrate table gets created
5) to make a migration “php artisan make:migration create_authors_table”
6) on successful creation open migrations, open the created migration
7) create schema in ‘up’ function of the class, drop schema in ‘down’ function
8) Schema query builder is used for creating tables
9) run migrations by using “php artisan migrate”
10) fluent query builder is used for inserting & updating tables
11) DB:: for crud operation into table
12) php artisan migrate:rollback for executing ‘down’ in the migrations (1 step at a time)
13) php artisan migrate:reset for executing ‘down’ on all migrations at once

Laravel Installation

  • Installing Laravel using composer
    Laravel is a PHP framework

    • Open command prompt (Windows)
    • Change directory and go to your webserver root directory (where you put all your website files)
    • Creating a new project in 2 ways:
      1. Execute this command “composer create-project laravel/laravel laravelApp”
      2. execute “laravel new laravelApp”
        1. this only works when laravel is installed globally
    • laravelApp is the new project name, you can your own project name, if the name is not specified new project will be created as laravel (name of the framework)
    • Above command executes laravel framework and all its dependencies
    • You’ll see a secure key provided on the screen on successful installation
    • On successful installation:
      • if you have local server running:
        • Navigate to “yourserver/laravelApp/public” to see welcome page(it shows ‘Laravel’)
      • if you want to use PHP built in environment